March 2017 - Room 213

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Getting Your Teens to Actually Read

This is a serious issue in secondary classrooms when the required reading is longer and can't be completed in class. There are not enough hours in the semester to get it all done as it is, and besides, kids read at such vastly different rates that some are finished long before others. It means that students just have to do some reading at home. But, we all know that creates another issue, because many will come unprepared to do the next day's work. It is a true conundrum.

Strategies to motivate kids to readI wish I could tell you that I had the secret. I don't. I struggle with the same issues every day. I do, however, have a few strategies that can help.

First of all, I start every semester with reading workshop. The best way to hook reluctant readers is to let them find a book that makes them want to read. And that's not necessarily To Kill a Mockingbird or Lord of the Flies. I still do a full class novel, but not until later in the semester, after the kids have had a chance to read books that they have chosen for themselves. My hope is that by then, they are more willing to read something that I've assigned, because they've learned to enjoy reading.

Another thing I need to do to ensure that my students actually read is spend some time on their favourite Internet sites. You know the ones I mean:  Sparknotes, Schmoop, E-notes. I've written about this before in my post about keeping kids off Sparksnotes, so you can read more detail there. Essentially, if I keep asking questions or using assessments that they can answer without reading, then I'm part of the problem. Text-Self and Text-Text questions are good for this. Find a poem or an article that relates to something in the text and have them show their knowledge of character or theme by making connections between the two. Or have them illustrate how a character is like them or someone they know. These things are a lot harder to "Google."

In reality, though, I ask my students very few questions about the texts they read. Instead, I teach them how to take notes and require them to come to class with notes made on the night's assigned reading. I tell them ahead of time what they should be looking for and have them "start a page" for each element. For example, if we're reading Mockingbird, they will write Atticus, Scout, Jem, etc. at the top of a page. On the page entitled "Atticus", they will take notes to track his character. They do the same with themes or motifs that I tell them to track as they read.

Strategies for critical thinking about textBut do I make sure they actually do this? During each class, the students will meet to discuss what they believe to be significant about each section. At the beginning of each class, I do a quick check to see who has their notes done. Those who didn't do the homework can't participate in the group discussions. I either send them to the library or cafeteria to finish, or leave them at their desks to do so. Basically, they can't just sit in the group and benefit from everyone else's work; they need to do it themselves.  The first few times I do this, there will be a huge group of students who have to sit out. However, after they catch on that I mean business, the group quickly dwindles. It really works.

Aside from this note-taking strategy, I have a lot of critical thinking exercises I do with the students that require them to actually read and understand the text. In the picture to the right, students are doing a write-around exercise that requires them to discuss the purpose of a chapter and to build on each other's ideas. I also like them to choose a title for a chapter or section and give a rationale for why they chose it. Each of these requires a deeper understanding of the reading, one that is hard to fake. And, when students come to class knowing that you're going to give them work that requires that kind of understanding, they are much more likely to do the work.

Now, I'm no fool. I know that there are still kids who don't read and rely on the Internet or movies to do their thinking for them. But, you know what? There will always be those kids. Unfortunately, we won't get them all. I do find, though, that these strategies hook more of them into reading.

Do you have any tried and true tips for ensuring that your kids read? Please share in the comments!


Scaffolding Literary Analysis

Teaching students to analyze text

Literary analysis is not easy, not for our students and not even for us. It's a process that requires the reader to dive deeply into the text. It's one that requires a great deal of thought. And it's also one that took us  (the so-called experts) years to master -- if we ever really did.

So, how do we take a room full of teenagers who would rather do anything else, and teach them to peel the layers off a text? How do we show them that this is a worthwhile -- and possibly even enjoyable -- exercise?
Teaching students to analyze text
The answer is to start at the end. Spend time thinking about where you want your students to be at the end of your time together. What outcomes do they need to achieve? What skills do they need to demonstrate? Just as a builder begins with a plan to construct a building, we need our own blueprint. The builder will start with the foundation, then build in the frame that will hold the structure up. We need to devise a plan that will provide our students with a solid foundation for their learning and the scaffolding -- or supports -- that will help them get where they need to go.

My end goal for literary analysis is that students will be able to identify author purpose and the techniques used to achieve that purpose. I want students to be able to select and embed effective textual evidence to support their points, and I want them to be able to confidently present their analysis in both oral and written form.  All of my activities and lessons will focus on leading them up the steps toward these end goals.

Teaching students to analyze textI never begin with the hard stuff. I've taught with teachers who wear rigour like a badge of honour, believing that starting with difficult, complex texts will set expectations right from the beginning. This isn't a strategy that works for me; in fact, I think it frustrates, rather than motivates students, and it usually doesn't provide much scaffolding.

Instead, I like to begin my classes - or any new unit - with easily accessible and highly engaging material.  If students enjoy what they are reading, it's much easier to get them to dig a little deeper into it.  Since I want them to identify author purpose and technique,  I look for short, interesting pieces of non-fiction where the writer has used a variety of ways to develop a thesis, ones where they have moved beyond just examples and statistics to the use of analogy or figurative language to push an idea. Always, we look at word choice and its effect.

I do the same with independent reading. Each day we do a short mini-lesson on how authors create meaning, perhaps how they use metaphor. I show them a mentor text; then, they will look for similar techniques in the books they are reading.  They will either write a short reflection or discuss what they've found with a partner. It's all really low stakes -- rarely for a mark -- so students  can learn without the stress of a poor result.

Teaching students to analyze text
When we focus on covering a certain number of texts, rather than on skill attainment, we tend to rush so we can get it all in by semester's end. I've done this too many times, sacrificing good teaching to the ticking clock and turning calendar page.

Teaching students to analyze textNow, regardless of the genre I use, the focus is on the skills the students need to build, not on the text itself. If students can identify how a metaphor affects meaning in a news story or a song, they should be able to do so in a piece of classic literature too. So, I focus on the skill, find accessible texts to teach them that skill, and then use a gradual release of responsibility to transition them into analyzing more difficult texts. You can read more about this process on a post I wrote called, Teaching Students to Analyze Text.

Before I ask students to become more independent, I do a short lesson on note-taking and  using post-it notes effectively. I've written about this before (check it out here), and can't stress enough how important this is. We can't just expect kids to know how to take notes, how to discern what's good to remember and what isn't. Taking part of a class to teach them good note-taking skills is time very well spent.
Teaching students to analyze text
One of the most important steps in teaching my kids to analyze lit, is setting an environment that allows them to do so. As I said earlier, this stuff is hard, and kids hate to be "wrong" in front of their peers. Therefore, we need to create a climate where they feel safe to make an educated guess, to put forward theories and to be "wrong." In order to do this I work hard to show them that there usually is not one "right answer." In fact, complex texts should be open to multiple interpretations. In order to do this, you need to consider how you respond to student comments. It's so natural to say "that's right" or "great answer",  but comments like "that's an interesting observation. Can you (or anyone else) add to that?"  or, "that's a great point. Does anyone see it differently?" will encourage students and promote the idea that multiple interpretations are desirable.

I start this process by modelling my own thinking when I see a difficult text for the first time. I'll put a poem or a passage on the smart board, and highlight and underline, question and comment. I do all of this in front of the students. I'll put forth a theory:  I think the author is suggesting... however, I'm not quite sure how this image/idea/point fits in. What do you guys think?  This last question is so important. I --the teacher-- am asking their advice. I'm not certain and I need to collaborate to get closer to an answer. I will also encourage them to disagree with me -- and to provide proof for why they do.

We also spend a lot of time fostering effective group discussions. I put one group in a circle in the middle of the room and give them a topic to discuss, something from the literature we are studying. We start the discussion and I model what good group work looks like. Then we switch it up and try it with another group. I encourage debate and say things like: I agree with Andrew's point and I'd like to add... Or, I might say I can see why you'd think that, but consider this... Mostly, I encourage kids to use more textual evidence to back up their points.
Teaching students to analyze text
I do a lot of group work when kids are learning to analyze text. They are expected to come to class with notes they take while reading. Then, I put them together and let them hash it out. The question is always the same: what's the purpose of this chapter/scene/section  and how doe the author achieve it?  The group meeting allows them to have exploratory discussion, so they can "think it out." They discover what they know and what they need to figure out. They ask lots of questions. They pull ideas together while building on each one. They refute each other's ideas in order to fine-tune  their thinking on the ideas in the text.

While students have these discussions, I wander from group to group. Mostly I just listen, but if they seem to be heading in the wrong direction, I'll ask some questions: Why do you think that? What evidence is there in the text? Or, have you considered this? I never answer these questions; I just keep prodding. I aim to be part of the conversation, not the director of it.  It can be really hard not to jump in and give them an answer when they are struggling, but they will learn so much more if you just push and prod, without giving them one -- and they will be so excited when they get it on their own.

If however, they just can't get it, or I notice that they have veered too far off the path, I 'll give them something to consider, a clue. I'll tell them to think about it and come back to them later. If they still haven't figured it out, I'll give them another clue. If they still can't get it, I will direct them more specifically.

After the group work, we always reconvene and have a full class discussion. At that point, I already know which group has come up with some insightful observations and so I can direct the discussion by asking them to contribute their ideas. However, I don't usually start with that group. I'll first ask a group that's kinda there and then ask the other group what they can add. It's a little manipulative, but the class feels like they're working together rather than me just filling in the blanks for them.  And this goes back to the first question--they know I'm never going to stand at the front of the class and give them the answers. They know they have to work to find them. Because of this, I think it's more likely that they might actually do some of the work.

After we've done enough of these activities, students will have to show me what they've learned in an assessment. I always start with something short -- maybe a paragraph that analyzes a quote or a character -- and give them some formative feedback. Then, when I think they're ready, we will write a literary essay.

There's nothing more satisfying than helping a kid find success in an area that they find difficult. They may never come to love the process of analyzing lit, but they sure will find pride in knowing that they can.  I've got a ton of exercises and activities that I use to get my kids to think about texts. You'll find a lot of them here on my blog and also in this bundle of Critical Thinking Activities for Any Text.

How do you help your kids build the skills they need for literary analysis? I'd love to hear all about it in the comments!

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Writing Pokes: The Perfect Tool for Review & Differentiation

We all know that kids need a lot of practice and reinforcement with writing skills. We also know that they all don't need to practice the same ones.  The trick is finding a way to help our students attain the skills that they need as individuals. But how can we keep them all working ahead without boring some students and frustrating others?

I decided to create some Writing Pokes, task cards that I can pull out while students are working on their writing. These pokes focus the students on one task at a time, so they can target a skill and not get overwhelmed with the revision process. The back of each card has a brief reminder of the term/skill in the poke. For example, a card from my free Essay Structure Pokes might ask the student to look over his/her introduction. The back of the card lists ways that they can lead into a thesis. These reminders are brief, and students may have to refer to their notes for further instruction, but it's a great starting point, one that allows the students to work more independently.

These pokes are a great tool for differentiation: you know that Jonathan has trouble writing thesis statements, Carly never has a topic sentence in a paragraph, and Thomas has mastered the basics, so it's time for him to experiment with his diction. When these students are writing, you can quickly instruct them all by giving each one a poke that focuses him/her on the skill they need to improve. Jonathan gets one that reminds him to check his thesis statement, Carly will work on creating topic sentences, and Thomas will get out the thesaurus and make more effective word choices.

In order to use these effectively, I have a series of tracking forms, with columns that match the skills I want students to master. For example, one of my Sentence Fluency forms lists different types of phrases that I'd like my students to experiment with. When one of my students illustrates that s/he knows how to use an appositive, I check that off. When I want them to revise, I'll look at the forms and see where there are areas of weakness, pull out a corresponding poke, and give it to the student. Your brain might work differently than mine, and you might prefer to check the column in an area where the student needs work. Regardless, it's an important step for tracking the skills of each student.

You can also use these pokes after you've taught a lesson on certain concepts that you want students to work on in their writing. Let's say you've just taught a lesson on word choice. You want kids to review what they've learned, so you pass out pokes for practice. You could give part of the class a poke that instructs them to use a metaphor in their writing, while other students are given one that asks them to use tactile imagery. Yet another group could be working on choosing the best word for the job. After they've had time to do as the poke instructed, they could trade cards with other students.

There are many ways that you can use these pokes --there are even editable cards so you can create your own. Check out my free Essay Structure Pokes and see what you think.

Happy teaching!


Teaching Speaking & Listening Skills

We English teachers spend a lot of time teaching our kids to read and write, but I'm not sure that most of us (myself included) spend as much time explicitly teaching speaking and listening skills. Most times, we just assign a speech, presentation or debate and just kind of expect that our students will know what to do at the time. Or, we might just give a short review of the things they should do: maintain eye contact, speak slowly and clearly, use your voice and body for emphasis. 

I know, that that's pretty much all I ever did until the last couple of years, and I was often disappointed with my students' presentations. More recently, I've come to accept that I was a big part of the problem.

I've always used lots of informal presentations in class, so kids could practice. I would give them an issue or topic to discuss, hand out chart paper and markers, and instruct them to record their ideas on the paper. Later, each group would take turns presenting their ideas. They would have a poster that was not well organized or easy to read -- completely useless for the audience. However, they used the poster for themselves as a giant notepad: each speaker would turn from the audience toward the chart paper, and read off their portion of the presentation.

It was not engaging. And it was all my fault.

These skills would carry over to their formal presentations: poorly constructed slideshows and lots of reading from the screen. I decided it was time for me to start explicitly teaching speaking & listening skills and now I build time into my instruction to do just that.  Read on to see what I did this week with my kiddos:

So, on Monday, after my kids had passed in their latest writing assignment, I launched into my Disney unit, one of my favourite lessons to get them thinking about the world around them. This lesson points out the gender and racial stereotypes that occur in many of the older Disney movies, and then gets the kids to evaluate whether or not they've improved with newer ones. I told them that I was going to present some ideas that they may whole-heartedly agree or disagree with. Because it was also a listening exercise, I instructed them to write these points down in their notes, and to record examples that would support my points -- or refute them.  I explain that they will need these notes for the discussions and activities that we will do as a class later.

Now because these are tenth graders who have not had a lot of experience with note-taking, I pause after the first few major points that I make, and ask them: what kinds of things did you write down?  If I think they're taking notes on unnecessary info, I'll tell them, and we'll discuss why. I will also pause every now and then and remind them to write down examples that support or refute my points.

Depending on the class, I may ask them to pass these notes in.  When they know that I'm looking at them, then they are much more likely to do so. This group is pretty keen, though, so knowing they'd need the notes for later was enough.

After my lesson, I told the kids that I wanted them to discuss their responses in groups -- reassuring that it was very ok to disagree with me. However, I wanted them to make sure that during their discussions the were adding to my points with more examples, or refuting them with different ones. I also wanted them to bring the discussion into other areas of the media, not just Disney.

Once they'd had a chance to debate, I asked each group to pick an element of the media or pop culture, other than Disney, that promotes positive or negative messages to teens. I made sure each group was covering a different topic; then, instructed them to plan a short presentation for the rest of the class to share their ideas and observations. When I passed out the paper and the markers, I pointed out that the purpose of the paper is for the audience: it should have a title with their topic followed by bullet points that highlight what they want to tell the group. Heads nodded in agreement.

And then they all started writing their notes on the paper.

I stopped them mid-tracks and asked  them to repeat what I'd told them about the posters. They responded perfectly. But their chart paper told a different story.

"OK," I said. "flip that paper over. Titles and bullets only."

They complied, but it was a struggle, because they were fighting against old habits. Hard.

At that point I passed out the index cards that I had for them, and told them that each person should write their own notes on the cards. They took a few minutes to sort that out and complete the task. Then, I asked each person to summarize the point that was written on the card in a short phrase or "title".

"That's your bullet point," I said. "It's just a guide for the audience to follow, not something for you to refer to. You should look only at your index card -- and the audience, of course."

Once we got that figured out, the posters took shape and became useful tools for the audience.

It was time to present.

But there was one more bit of instruction: I told the audience members to take note of things they agree/disagree with, so we could have a full class discussion after each group shared their ideas. This keeps them engaged and, of course, listening.

We only got through half of the groups today, but I was very pleased with the results. It took more work to get there, but the posters were good, the students faced the audience, and we had great debates after each one.  Next we have to work on the "OK ums..."

(Note: these are informal discussions, for skill building only. When it's time, we'll move onto more formal presentations, and at that time, I will include a section in the rubric for listening skills. I also have students evaluate each other during group discussions, so they know that their ability to listen and contribute is being assessed.)

I've also changed my lessons to include a lot more speaking opportunities for my students. You can read about how I use group discussions to introduce To Kill a Mockingbird here.

Happy teaching!

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5 Steps for Better Research Essays

Do your students struggle with the research process? Are you tired of reading poorly paraphrased work? You might like to try the process that I've fine-tuned over the last few years. It's not perfect, but I've been reading much better essays since I started doing this.

The biggest problem I see with student essays is that they view the research as an end in itself, not a tool they can use to support their ideas. They use the research they find to make their points - to fill up their essays - rather than to support the points or arguments that they want to make.

To avoid this, I insist that they must choose a topic that will allow them to write a complete first draft that has NO research. Not a quote. Not a stat. I tell them that if they can't write a rough draft without looking outside themselves, then they just don't have enough to say on the topic. The essay needs to be about something they are passionate about or something that they know a lot about already -- and not because they've done research on it before. I stress that it's ok if some paragraphs are under-developed in a rough draft, because they are just getting their ideas down at this point.

The key to teaching kids to use research effectively is to focus on the steps necessary to do so. When I do a persuasive research essay, I require that they pass in all steps of the process in a writing folder, not just the good copy.  This way, you ensure that (for the most part), the students will complete each stage. Because students are required to pass in their first draft, they do not skip this all-important step of writing a rough copy that comes completely from them, with no outside sources.

To help them with this, I show them an exemplar that I've written, a draft that has no research. The draft is focused and organized, with a clear thesis and topic sentences; however it needs more detail and a lot of wordsmithing.  I point out to the students that my draft needs revision and research and that we'll use it later to show them how to improve their own essays. Next, I assign due dates for their outlines and first drafts to be complete. The past few semesters, I've put even more emphasis on the pre-writing stage with my planning stations. It's a very effective strategy to ensure that my students begin the process with an organized plan for writing their essays.

One step that many students skip is the one that requires them to actually look at their draft and decide which areas would benefit from outside information or quotations. They will just start Googling broad topics, hoping that something useful will show up in the search. To prevent this, we spent time working on how to narrow their search. First, I had them look back at my original draft. They got out their highlighters and I instructed them to indicate areas on the essay that would benefit from research -- and to note what kind of information it needed. For example, would a quote from an expert support a point? Did I need some facts and statistics for another one? They were spot on in their suggestions. It's always easier to evaluate someone else's work than one's own, so I think this step really helps them see what the need to do in their own work.

The next step, of course, was to look at  their own drafts. They highlighted and wrote notes in the margins, all before I started my lesson on how to paraphrase.

Unintentional paraphrasing is rampant. Students think they are paraphrasing properly, but they are really only changing a few words here and there. My students are always shocked when I tell them that using more than three words in a row from an outside source is a no-no. But I don't leave it at that; instead, I take them through some exercises that show them how to paraphrase and give them practice in doing so. Once I feel like they understand the steps they need to follow to research properly, we get out the Chrome Books and they begin to look for information that can support their ideas.
This year I gave them organizers to use as they researched. They recorded the information they found on the sheets, in point-form, and used these notes - rather than the original source - to include the research in their papers. This is a key step. I believe that a lot of unintentional plagiarism occurs because the kids copy-and-paste a nicely written sentence that they've found, and change a few words here and there. If, however, they record the information in short form, and work from their notes, they are much more likely to make the information their own. The essay will still be in their own voice 
and style, rather than peppered with the voice of other people.

I give them a day or two to complete the research and have them bring a hard copy of their newest draft to class.

At this point in the process, I feel like students have the basics covered. They have a draft that is focused and organized, with their ideas fleshed out with the research they found. It's time for the students to look at their word choice and sentence structure. This is always an important part of the revision process, but if we want them to smoothly incorporate research into their writing, we need to provide them with lessons to show them how to do that. For example, how do you effectively embed a quotation from an authority? How can you avoid using "says" all the time? When you use paraphrased information, how do you transition into it? Students need time to focus on those skills if we want them to smoothly incorporate their research.

They also need time to learn how to do in-text citations and works cited. Creating each is not hard. It's just time consuming. And boring. I acknowledge that fact and then give them time to work on it. I remind them how to do the citations. I show them examples of poorly done works cited and have them find the errors. And, if they do a poor job on their final copy, I ask them to redo it, because the only way they'll learn is if we hold them accountable to the process.

I know all of this takes more time, but it really is time time well spent. It has certainly made a huge difference in the quality of papers I get to read.

Do you have any tips for helping students research? I'd love to hear them!


Writing Lessons: The Power of Words

Writing activities for middle and high school English

During a stormy February, I was teaching my Pre-IB class about the power of words. We talked about avoiding tired words and using active, vivid verbs. I did lessons on conno-tation and tone, and on sensory imagery and figurative language. However, I didn't want my students to just be able to identify language techniques and choose effective words when they write; I want them to understand how language choices can affect meaning. I want them to be able to recognize this in the texts they read as well as use it in their own writing, so I designed a series of lessons and activities to teach them how to do so.

After each mini-lesson on word choice, we would read. I instructed the students to get some post-it notes and mark passages that illustrated the author's use of language. For example, one day they looked for strong verbs and another they looked for words with strong connotation.  I ask them to look for one technique only in the beginning, so they can focus without getting over-whelmed. When we finished reading, students did a turn and talk and shared the passages with a partner, explaining the effect of the language choices as well. I was very pleased with the conversations that they had about language -- it was clear they were learning!

Writing Lessons -Word Choice

The students also worked though a series of collaborative activities designed to get them to practice what they had learned.  For the first one, I put different scenarios on the top of chart paper, arranged the students in groups, and instructed them to brainstorm words and images that could describe their assigned scenario. After a few minutes I started handing out "cards" to some of the students.  If their group was working on describing the classroom before a math exam, I gave one student a card that read "you're great at math" and another that said "you have test anxiety; other students received cards that read "tone", "strong verbs" and "imagery." I told them to start adding language that reflected what was on their card -- and not to tell the others what it said.

Writing Lessons -Word Choice
Once they had finished, I asked the "cardless" kids to guess what was written on their group mates' cards. After the guessed (or not) the student adhered it beside the words they had written on the poster. If they were having trouble guessing, I hovered and asked some questions to get them there.

This activity worked really well. First, the kids were given the opportunity to see how their words can change a writer's intended meaning. Someone who is introverted, for example, will describe a busy school hallway very differently than one who is a social butterfly. Their work also provided me with an opportunity to give some formative feedback. One thing I noticed was that most of the students were writing only one word, rather than full phrases.  I reminded  them of our lesson on imagery and figurative language and told them not to forget to use those tools as well.

Writing Lessons -Word Choice

Next up came one of my favourite group exercises. In the past I've had students work in groups to write a descriptive paragraph that captures the essence of a sour key.  I use it to teach the power of brainstorming, by having the students brainstorm words/phrases to describe it in three stages: how it looks, how it feels and  how it tastes. Then they write a group paragraph with the best one winning the remaining candy. Competition is always fierce! 

This time, however, I threw in a twist. After they had done their initial brainstorming, I gave each group a card that instructed them to write from a certain perspective. One group wrote as health enthusiasts and another as sugar addicts. One group wrote as though they were dentists, and another as candy "snobs". The resulting paragraphs were, of course, very different, and the kids got to see, once again, how language shapes meaning.

Finally, I had them do a writing prompt based on this photograph:

Writing Lessons -Word Choice
Before they wrote, I asked them to consider the girl: does she like to be by herself? Does she hate the cold? Is she an explorer? A dreamer? Why is she there? I gave them a few minutes to decide on the perspective from which they would write, then gave them time to complete the task.

The descriptive paragraph was one of the many writing prompts that they had in their journals. The journals had a variety of entries, and not all descriptive. I wanted them to recognize that language is equally as important in expository and persuasive writing, and after each entry, I asked them to go back and underline at least two places where they used language for effect.
Formative assessment tip

When I collected the journals, I did not write a single thing in the margins. Instead, I used a pink and a yellow highlighter. If I saw an example of effectively used language, I highlighted it in yellow; I used the pink one for language that could be more powerful.  I did this twice in each journal entry, and when I passed them back, I told the students to look it over and try to figure out what my color code meant.  They weren't long in doing so -- another sign that they had learned. Next, I had them attempt to use stronger language for their "pink" phrases, and write it in the margin. I'll look at their changes the next time we conference.

I've created two new products that are focused on teaching kids to use their words wisely. If you're interested, you can check them out: Writing Lessons: Word Choice and Writing Challenges

Happy teaching!

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